In the present study, spatial compound growth rates were estimated to know the growth pattern and instability in the area, production, and productivity of sugarcane in major sugarcane growing states of India. A secondary time series data of major sugarcane producing states of India like Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Gujarat, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha for the period thirty years from 1990-91 to 2019-20 have been utilized for the present study. The compound growth rates were computed with the help of exponential function, and instability/variability has been computed by using techniques of co-efficient of variation and Cuddy Della-Valle Index method. Student’s t-test was applied to check the significant differences in area, production, and productivity trends using compound growth rates (CGR). CGR of sugarcane production was 1.13 per centpercent in India during the study period with a significant growth rate in area (1.12%) and yield (0.39%). The statistically significant instability in sugarcane production was high at 9.67 percent than area (7.20%) and yield (5.26%) in the study period. The state-wise compound growth rate of sugarcane production was positively significant in Madhya Pradesh (5.31%), Bihar (3.65%), Maharashtra (3.39%), Karnataka (1.42%), and Uttar Pradesh (1.36%). The highest negative growth rate was observed in Odisha (-5.45%) and Andhra Pradesh (-1.63%). The instability of sugarcane production was highest at 44.06 percent than area (36.66%) in Odisha and yield (14.80%) in Madhya Pradesh.