The present investigation was undertaken with a view to work out the costs of and returns from mungbean in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan. A random sample of 100 mungbean cultivators was selected for the study. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. The primary data were collected from the selected mungbean cultivators, using personal interview method on pre-structured data schedule for the year 2015-16. On the selected farmers an average total cost of cultivation (cost C3) per hectare of mungbean was ` 31776.07 on large farms and ` 32092.8 on marginal farms. Overall gross income, family labour income, farm business income, net profit and cost of production were estimated at ` 50901, ` 26370, ` 36526, ` 21889 per hectare and ` 4534 per quintal. Return per rupee from mungbean cultivation was ` 1.77 per rupee invested on large farms and ` 1.45 per rupee invested on small sized farms with overall per rupee returns of ` 1.60.