An effort has been made in this study to examine the trends in area, production, productivity, costs, returns and profitability of sugarcane and to determine the factors which are contributing toward productivity of sugarcane in major sugar producing states of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. It has been observed that area expansion has significantly contributed towards increased production of sugarcane but productivity has remained stagnant. Cost of cultivation of sugarcane also witnessed increasing trend and due to much higher use of inputs, it was found to be higher for Maharashtra than Uttar Pradesh. However growth of value of output has outpaced the growth of cost of cultivation and thus rising trend of profitability was observed and was higher for Uttar Pradesh as compared to that of Maharashtra. The study found the positive and significant contribution of human labour, machine, fertilizers, insecticides and size of plot towards productivity of sugarcane and thus efficient management of these inputs can certainly led to increasing the productivity of sugarcane in India.