Indian Economy is an emerging economy, but it is still an agricultural economy because most people earn their livelihood from agriculture. The present study was carried out to determine the factors affecting cereals production in Rajasthan. This paper is based on secondary data and inputs such as seed, fertilizer, manure, human labor, irrigation, bullock labor, and plant protection collected over the years i.e.; from 2000-01 to 2015-16. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to estimate elasticities of selected variables contributing to the production of cereals in Rajasthan state and assess the effects of seed, fertilizer, manure, human labor, irrigation, bullock labor, and plant protection measures on cereals production. The results from the study have shown that seed, fertilizer, and irrigation water were positively significant. At the same time, the variable corresponding to plant protection measures was significantly negative, affecting wheat production. The variables such as seed and fertilizer were found positive and significant while human labor measures significantly negatively affected barley. Only two variables, namely human labor and irrigation water, were found positively significant in the production of maize. In contrast, seed, bullock labor, and plant protection measures were found to be negatively non-significant contributing factors. The variables such as seed and fertilizer were found to have a significantly positive effect on bajra production. In contrast, bullock labor and plant protection measures were negatively non non-significant contributing factors.